The classic articulation of the problem of free will in Jewish thought is “Everything is known yet we are free.” I would like to suggest that federalism offers a solution within the Jewish tradition to this tension. For example, it is written that G-D alienates the responsibility to set the calendar to the Sanhedrin so completely that when the angels ask G-D a question about the calendar G-D instructs them to consult the Sanhedrin. There are several other examples of this. This is perfectly compatible with G-D’s sovereignty if only because there is not supposed to be any true separation between the Divine and the one who carries out the Divine Will by fulfilling a mitzvah. This is a model of shared sovereignty characteristic of federalism.
There is a sense in which each individual is similarly empowered by the Covenant as a constitution. Like any constitution this empowers the authorities at the same time as it limits that authority. Everything may be known, but it still falls to the discretion of that “level of government” to decide.